Titulo: Programming a Computer for Playing Chess

Autor: Claude E. Shannon

Publicacion: 1949

Editorial: Bell Telephone Labs

Num. Paginas: 18

Tamano: 169 Kbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Ajedrez, Programación, Textos Académicos

Etiquetas: Ajedrez, IA, Paper, Programación

This paper is concerned with the problem of constructing a computing routine or "program" for a modern general purpose computer which will enable it to play chess. Although perhaps of no practical importance, the question is of theoretical interest, and it is hoped that a satisfactory solution of this problem will act as a wedge in attacking other problems of a similar nature and of greater significance. Some possibilities in this direction are: Machines for designing filters, equalizers, etc. Machines for designing relay and switching circuits. Machines which will handle routing of telephone calls based on the individual circumstances rather than by fixed patterns. Machines for performing symbolic (non-numerical) mathematical operations. Machines capable of translating from one language to another. Machines for making strategic decisions in simplified military operations. Machines capable of orchestrating a melody. Machines capable of logical deduction. It is believed that all of these and many other devices of a similar nature are possible developments in the immediate future. The techniques developed for modern electronic and relay type computers make them not only theoretical possibilities, but in several cases worthy of serious consideration from the economic point of view.

]]>Titulo: Learning Deep Architectures for AI

Autor: Yoshua Bengio

Publicacion: 2009

Editorial: Now

Num. Paginas: 130

Tamano: 1.00 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Algoritmos, Arquitectura, Programación

Etiquetas: AI, Arquitectura, Boltzmann, Complejidad, IA, Inteligencia artificial, Programación, Redes neuronales

Theoretical results suggest that in order to learn the kind of complicated functions that can represent high-level abstractions (e.g., in vision, language, and other AI-level tasks), one may need deep architectures. Deep architectures are composed of multiple levels of non-linear operations, such as in neural nets with many hidden layers or in complicated propositional formulae re-using many sub-formulae. Searching the parameter space of deep architectures is a difficult task, but learning algorithms such as those for Deep Belief Networks have recently been proposed to tackle this problem with notable success, beating the stateof-the-art in certain areas. This monograph discusses the motivations and principles regarding learning algorithms for deep architectures, in particular those exploiting as building blocks unsupervised learning of single-layer models such as Restricted Boltzmann Machines, used to construct deeper models such as Deep Belief Networks.

]]>Titulo: Introduction to Probability

Autor: Charles M. Grinstead & J. Laurie Snell

Publicacion: 2007

Editorial: Autoedición

Num. Paginas: 520

Tamano: 2.41 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Ciencia, Matemáticas

Etiquetas: Ciencia, Matemáticas, Probabilidad

Probability theory began in seventeenth century France when the two great French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat, corresponded over two problems from games of chance. Problems like those Pascal and Fermat solved continued to influence such early researchers as Huygens, Bernoulli, and DeMoivre in establishing a mathematic al theory of probability. Today, probability theory is a welles tablished branch of mathematics that finds applications in every area of scholarly activity from music to physics, and in daily experience from weather prediction to predicting the risks of new medical treatments. This text is designed for an introductory probability course taken by sophomores, juniors, and seniors in mathematics, the physical and social sciences, engineering, and computer science. It presents a thorough treatment of probability ideas and techniques necessary for a firm understanding of the subject. The text can be used in a variety of course lengths, levels, and areas of emphasis. For use in a standard one -term course, in which both discrete and continuous probability is covered, students should have taken as a prerequisite two terms of calculus, including an introduction to multiple integrals. In order to cover Chapter 11, which contains material on Markov chains, some knowledge of matrix theory is necessary. The text can also be used in a discrete probability course. The material has been organized in such a way that the discrete and continuous probability discussions are presented in a separate, but parallel, manner. This organization dispels an overly rigorous or formal view of probability and offers some strong pedagogical value in that the discrete discussions can some times serve to motivate the more abstract continuous probability discussions. For use in a discrete probability course, students should have take none term of calculus as a prerequisite.

]]>Titulo: Hubble’s Legacy

Autor: Roger D. Launius & David H. DeVorkin (Eds.)

Publicacion: 2014

Editorial: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press

Num. Paginas: 240

Tamano: 6.81 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Ciencia

Etiquetas: Astrofísica, Astronomía, Ciencia, Hubble

The Hubble Space Telescope (Hubble) has many legacies. There is a rich scientifi legacy (the wealth of astronomical information it has added and continues to add to our store of knowledge about the universe); a cultural legacy (our new vision of the universe and the menagerie of fantastic things that exist within it, beyond any comprehensible scale or human reference, but still somehow brought within our grasp); and a technological legacy. Additionally it is the fist telescope in space that has been repeatedly visited for repair and for improvement. That Hubble could be visited repeatedly made it diffrent from all other telescopes heretofore placed into orbit. It was not the fist to be serviced. The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) in the late 1980s, and certainly the solar telescopes aboard the Apollo Telescope Mount connected to the Skylab space station in the early 1970s, were visited and operated during their lifetimes in space. The SMM, in fact, was rejuvenated as well, but the extent of the transformation made possible by successive visits to Hubble was far more signifcant, vastly increasing and broadening its capabilities to observe the universe. (...) This book is, therefore, an anthology of what have been personal journeys of major participants in one of the most signifiant scientifi quests of the twentieth and twenty-fist centuries.

]]>Titulo: Algorithms and Data Structures with applications to Graphics and Geometry

Autor: Jurg Nievergelt & Klaus Hinrichs

Publicacion: 2011

Editorial: Autoedición

Num. Paginas: 299

Tamano: 2.96 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Algoritmos, Programación

Etiquetas: Algoritmia, Ciencia, Estructura de datos, Geometría, Matemáticas, Programación, Recursión

An introductory coverage of algorithms and data structures with application to graphics and geometry. Table of Contents Part I: Programming environments for motion, graphics, and geometry Part II: Programming concepts: beyond notation Part III: Objects, algorithms, programs Part IV: Complexity of problems and algorithms Part V: Data structures Part VI: Interaction between algorithms and data structures: case studies in geometric computation

]]>Titulo: Foundations of Computation

Autor: Carol Critchlow & David Eck

Publicacion: 2011

Editorial: Autoedición

Num. Paginas: 256

Tamano: 1.52 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Programación

Etiquetas: FSA, Funciones, Lógica, Programación, RegExp, Relaciones, Turing

Foundations of Computation is a free textbook for a one-semester course in theoretical computer science. It has been used for several years in a course at Hobart and William Smith Colleges. The course has no prerequisites other than introductory computer programming. The first half of the course covers material on logic, sets, and functions that would often be taught in a course in discrete mathematics. The second part covers material on automata, formal languages, and grammar that would ordinarily be encountered in an upper level course in theoretical computer science. Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Logic and Proof Chapter 2: Sets, Functions, and Relations Chapter 3: Regular Expressions and FSA's Chapter 4: Grammars Chapter 5: Turing Machines and Computability

]]>Titulo: Applied Discrete Structures

Autor: Alan Doerr & Kenneth Levasseur

Publicacion: 2013

Editorial: University of Massachusetts Lowell

Num. Paginas: 496

Tamano: 24.14 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Ciencia, Matemáticas

Etiquetas: álgebra, álgebra booleana, Ciencia, Combinatoria, Funciones, Grafos, Lógica, Matemáticas, Matrices

As a general description one could say that discrete mathematics is the mathematics that deals with "separated" or discrete sets of objects rather than with continuous sets such as the real line. For example, the graphs that we learn to draw in high school are of continuous functions. Even though we might have begun by plotting discrete points on the plane, we connected them with a smooth, continuous, unbroken curve to form a straight line, parabola, circle, etc. The underlying reason for this is that hand methods of calculation are too laborious to handle huge amounts of discrete data. The computer has changed all of this. Today, the area of mathematics that is broadly called "discrete" is that which professionals feel is essential for people who use the computer as a fundamental tool. It can best be described by looking at our Table of Contents. It involves topics like sets, logic, and matrices that students may be already familiar with to some degree. In this Introduction, we give several examples of the types of problems a student will be able to solve as a result of taking this course. The intent of this Introduction is to provide an overview of the text. Students should read the examples through once and then move on to Chapter One. After completing their study of discrete mathematics, they should read them over again. We hope discrete mathematics is as fascinating and enjoyable to the student as it has been to us.

]]>Titulo: Open Data Structures: An Introduction

Autor: Pat Morin

Publicacion: 2013

Editorial: AU PRESS

Num. Paginas: 336

Tamano: 1.44 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Algoritmos, Programación

Etiquetas: Algoritmos, árboles de datos, Computación, Data, Datos, Grafos, Matemáticas, Modelos, Ordenación, Stacks

Every computer science curriculum in the world includes a course on data structures and algorithms. Data structures are that important; they improve our quality of life and even save lives on a regular basis. Many multi-million and several multi-billion dollar companies have been built around data structures. How can this be? If we stop to think about it, we realize that we interact with data structures constantly. Open a file: File system data structures are used to locate the parts of that file on disk so they can be retrieved. This isn’t easy; disks contain hundreds of millions of blocks. The contents of your file could be stored on any one of them. Look up a contact on your phone: A data structure is used to look up a phone number in your contact list based on partial information even before you finish dialing/typing. This isn’t easy; your phone may contain information about a lot of people—everyone you have ever contacted via phone or email—and your phone doesn’t have a very fast processor or a lot of memory. Log in to your favourite social network: The network servers use your login information to look up your account information. This isn’t easy; the most popular social networks have hundreds of millions of active users. Do a web search: The search engine uses data structures to find the web pages containing your search terms. This isn’t easy; there are over 8.5 billion web pages on the Internet and each page contains a lot of potential search terms. Phone emergency services (9-1-1): The emergency services network looks up your phone number in a data structure that maps phone numbers to addresses so that police cars, ambulances, or fire trucks can be sent there without delay. This is important; the person making the call may not be able to provide the exact address they are calling from and a delay can mean the di fference between life or death.

]]>Titulo: Introduction to Programming Using Java

Autor: David J. Eck

Publicacion: 2014

Editorial: Hobart and William Smith Colleges

Num. Paginas: 762

Tamano: 5.26 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Java, Programación

Etiquetas: Data, Estructuras, GUI, Java, Programación

Introduction to Programming Using Java is a free introductory computer programming textbook that uses Java as the language of instruction. It is suitable for use in an introductory programming course and for people who are trying to learn programming on their own. There are no prerequisites beyond a general familiarity with the ideas of computers and programs. There is enough material for a full year of college-level programming. Chapters 1 through 7 can be used as a textbook in a one-semester college-level course or in a year-long high school course. The remaining chapters can be covered in a second course. The Seventh Edition of the book covers “Java 7”. The most recent version of Java is 8, but this book has only a few very short mentions of the new features in Java 8. In style, this is a textbook rather than a tutorial. That is, it concentrates on explaining concepts rather than giving step-by-step how-to-do-it guides. I have tried to use a conversational writing style that might be closer to classroom lecture than to a typical textbook. This is certainly not a Java reference book, and it is not a comprehensive survey of all the features of Java. It is not written as a quick introduction to Java for people who already know another programming language. Instead, it is directed mainly towards people who are learning programming for the first time, and it is as much about general programming concepts as it is about Java in particular. I believe that Introduction to Programming using Java is fully competitive with the conventionally published, printed programming textbooks that are available on the market. (Well, all right, I’ll confess that I think it’s better)

]]>Titulo: Elementary Real Analysis

Autor: Brian S. Thomson & VVAA

Publicacion: 2008

Editorial: ClassicalRealAnalysis.com

Num. Paginas: 683

Tamano: 2.54 Mbs (zip)

Idioma: Inglés

Categorias: Ciencia, Matemáticas

Etiquetas: Análisis, Ciencia, Espacios euclidianos, Funciones, Integrales, Límites, Matemáticas, Números, Secuencias

This edition differs from the original 2001 version only in that we corrected a number of misprints and other errors. We are grateful to the many users of that version for notifying us of errors they found. We would like to make special mention of Richard Delaware (University of Missouri-Kansas City), and Steve Agronsky (California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo), both of whom went through the entire first edition, made many helpful suggestions, and found numerous errors. University mathematics departments have for many years offered courses with titles such as Advanced Calculus or Introductory Real Analysis. These courses are taken by a variety of students, serve a number of purposes, and are written at various levels of sophistication. The students range from ones who have just completed a course in elementary calculus to beginning graduate students in mathematics. The purposes are multifold: To present familiar concepts from calculus at a more rigorous level. To introduce concepts that are not studied in elementary calculus but that are needed in more advanced undergraduate courses. This would include such topics as point set theory, uniform continuity of functions, and uniform convergence of sequences of functions. To provide students with a level of mathematical sophistication that will prepare them for graduate work in mathematical analysis, or for graduate work in several applied fields such as engineering or economics. To develop many of the topics that the authors feel all students of mathematics should know.

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